Spine Structure, Anatomy, Functions, Segments, Spine Problems, Spine Health
There are 5 sections in the spine: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal.
The cervical section is the highest and most mobile part of the spine, which is responsible for the movements of the human head. The cervical region contains seven cervical vertebrae (C1 to C7). Injuries to the cervical spine can occur because of a strong blow to the neck or with an excessive or sharp tilt of the head.
7 cervical vertebra – a large nerve center that is responsible for the health of the thyroid gland. The area of the 7th cervical and 1-3rd thoracic vertebrae is also associated with heart health.
There are two vertebral arteries in the cervical spine. These blood vessels supply blood to most of the brain and the medulla oblongata. The latter is responsible for controlling blood pressure.
The thoracic spine section is involved in the formation of the posterior chest wall, which is the seat of vital organs. In this regard, the thoracic spine is inactive. Twelve thoracic vertebrae make up the thoracic spine. In structure, they are much wider and thicker than the cervical vertebrae; the size of the vertebral bodies increases as it approaches the lumbar vertebrae.
The main reasons when the thoracic spine hurts are previous injuries of the spinal column or ribs (bruises, fractures, sprains of the ligamentous apparatus, instability of the vertebrae); previously transferred poliomyelitis or tuberculosis degenerative-dystrophic processes in the spine (protrusions, hernias).
Also, pain in the thoracic spine may indicate coronary heart disease, such as angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Or signal respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia, pleurisy, tuberculosis.
Lumbar spine section (5 vertebrae) This section consists of the most massive vertebrae, as they bear the greatest load. The lumbar spine connects lower to the sacrum (lower lumbar vertebra L5 connects to the upper sacral vertebra S1), higher – to the thoracic spine (L1 connects to the lower thoracic vertebra Th12).
The lumbar plexus gives rise to collateral and terminal branches. The collateral branches innervate the quadratus lumborum and the psoas major and minor. The terminal branches are the Ili hypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, femoral cutaneous nerve, obturator nerve, and femoral nerve.
Lumbar or Lower back pain can be caused by various reasons, but the statistics here are as follows: in 90% of cases, pain is caused by problems with the spine and back muscles; in 6%, the cause of pain is kidney disease; 4% – diseases of other internal organs (genitourinary system, intestines).
The sacrum (lat. os sacrum, literally “sacred bone”) is a part of the spine of terrestrial vertebrates, providing its connection with the pelvis. It is located between the lumbar and caudal (in humans – coccygeal) vertebrae.
Pain in the lumbosacral region with sciatica can be acute or dull, usually on one side, radiates to the buttock, back of the thigh, and the outer surface of the lower leg. It increases with a change in body position, walking, coughing, sneezing, straining.
Coccyx (lat. coccyx), coccygeal bone (lat. os coccygis) is the lower part of the human spine, consisting of four to five fused rudimentary vertebrae.
Causes of back pain in the coccyx spine section may include traumatic injuries professional static deformities (a consequence of prolonged sitting on a hard surface) congenital anomalies in the development of the sacrococcygeal vertebrae inflammatory processes in the skeletal muscles and peri coccygeal tissue.
The spinal cord is located inside the spinal canal and its protection is formed by the spine and paravertebral muscles. The spinal cord is one of the parts of the central nervous system. This is a long, delicate cylindrical cord, slightly flattened from front to back, from which the nerve roots branch off. It is the spinal cord that is responsible for the transmission of bioelectrical impulses from the brain to each organ and muscle and vice versa. It is responsible for the functioning of the sense organs, contraction when filling the bladder, relaxation of the sphincters of the rectum and urethra, regulation of the work of the heart muscle, lungs, etc.